St. Matia Mulumba
St. Matthias Mulumba Kalemba was a Musoga by tribe from Bunya county in Busoga. His biological parents, however, are not known. But his adopted father was; Magatto of Edible or Cane Rat Clan (Musu). Mulumba was the oldest of all the martyrs because by the time of his martyrdom he was about 50 years old. He was assistant to county chief of Ssingo called Mukwenda.He was baptized on 28 May 1882 by Pere Girault. Mulumba died the most brutal and longest lingering death of about 3 days (from the afternoon of Thursday 27th to Sunday 30th May 1886). His limbs were cut off from his body, and strips of flesh were cut from his back, and left to die at Old Kampala.
The capture of Matthias and his mother from Busoga and how he became a Christian
This most remarkable man was a Musoga. Born about 1836 in Bunya County in Busoga, the country lying across the Nile from Buganda, he, together with his mother, was captured by a raiding party of Baganda belonging to the Otter Clan and, at a very early age, carried off to Buganda as a slave.
His captors sold him to a member of the Edible-Rat (Musu) Clan, named Magatto, an uncle of Chancellor Mukasa, who seems to have treated the little fellow as a member of the family rather than as a slave. As often happened in such cases he was, as he grew up, grad¬ually treated as a member of the clan and as a free man. Possibly it was in recognition of this that he changed his name from the original Wanted to Kalemba.
After the death of his adopted father, Kalemba remained for a time with Magatto’s brother, Buzibwa, but, on attaining manhood, he left and took service with Ddumba, the county chief of Ssingo. In this service, he displayed such loyalty and trustworthiness that Ddumba came to rely upon him more and more until he became, in fact, if not in name, head of the chief’s household and supervisor of all the other servants.
On the death of Ddumba, his brother Kabunga who succeeded to the chieftainship seems to have realized the treasure he had in Kalemba, for not only did he confirm him in his many duties but gave them official recognition by creating for him the post of Ekirumba, so called in memory of Ddumba. As the holder of this office, Kalemba became known as the Mulumba.
Matthias Kalemba, the Mulumba, was of fairly large stature and rather a light coloring. His face, somewhat longer than the average and adorned with a small beard, an unusual feature amongst Baganda, was slightly pock-marked. He was immensely strong, quite fearless, and endowed with a powerful voice, a joyous disposition, and passionate love for the truth. His search for the truth led him first to the Muslim faith, which appealed to him by its obvious super¬iority to the paganism that surrounded him. When the Protestant missionaries arrived, he was at once attracted by Christianity and began to attend their instructions; but before he had made up his mind to ask for baptism he came, in the course of his duties, into contact with the Catholic Fathers. It was the traditional duty of the chief of Ssingo to erect and repair the buildings of the royal enclosure so that when Kabaka Muteesa undertook to build houses for the Catholic missionaries he naturally commissioned this chief to build them. The chief in turn placed his trusted headman, Kalemba, in charge of the work. The rest of the story is best told in Kalemba’s own words to Pere Livinhac:
My father (almost certainly Magatto, his father by adoption) had always believed that the Baganda had not the truth, and he sought it in his heart. He had often mentioned this to me, and before his death, he told me that men would one day come to teach us the right way.
These words made a profound impression on me and, whenever the arrival of some stranger was reported, I watched him and tried to get in touch with him, saying to myself that here perhaps was the man foretold by my father. Thus I associated with the Arabs who came first in the reign of Ssuuna. Their creed seemed to me superior to our superstitions. I received instructions and, together with a number of Baganda, I embraced their religion. Muteesa himself, anxious to please the Sultan of Zanzibar, of whose power and wealth he had been given an exaggerated account, declared that he also wanted to become a Muslim. Orders were given to build mosques in all the counties. For a short time, it looked as if the whole country was going to embrace the religion of the false prophet, but Muteesa had an extreme repugnance to circumcision. Consequently, changing his mind all of a sudden, he gave orders to exterminate all who had become Muslims. Many perished in the massacre, two or three hundred managed to escape and, with Arab caravans, made their way to the Island of Zanzibar. I succeeded with a few others in concealing the fact of my conversion and continued to pass for a friend of our own gods, though in secret I remained faith¬ful to the practices of Islam.
That was how things stood when the Protestants arrived. Muteesa received them very well; he had their book read in a public audience, and seemed to incline to their religion, which he declared to be much superior to that of the Arabs. I asked myself whether I had not made a mistake, and whether, perhaps, the newcomers were not the true messengers of God. I often went to visit them and attended to their instructions. It seemed to me that their teaching was an improvement on that of my first master’s. I, therefore, abandoned Islam, without however asking for baptism.
Several months had elapsed when Mapeera (Lourdel) arrived.
My instructor, Mackay, took care to tell me that the white men who had just arrived did not know the truth. He called their religion the ‘worship of the woman’; they adored, he said, the Virgin Mary. He also advised me to avoid them with the greatest care. I, therefore, kept away from you, and, probably, I would never have set foot in your place if my chief had not ordered me to supervise the building of one of your houses. But God showed his love for me.
The first time when I saw you nearby, I was very much impressed.
Nevertheless, I continued to watch you closely in your prayers and in your dealings with the people. Then seeing your goodness, I said to myself, ‘How can people who appear so good be the messengers of the devil?’
I talked with those who had placed themselves under instruction and questioned them on your doctrine. What they told me was just the contrary of what Mackay had assured me. Then I felt strongly urged to attend personally your catechetical instructions. God gave me the grace to understand that you taught the truth and that you really were the man of God to whom my father had spoken. Since then, I have never had the slightest doubt about the truth of your religion, and I feel truly happy.
Kalemba’s actual enrolment as a catechumen seems to have taken place on 31 May 1880.
Matthias Kalemba Mulumba separates from his women for Christianity
Matthias Kalemba Mulumba, a man of about 50, was an assistant county chief to Mukwenda (the county chief of Ssingo) and had many wives. In the African tradition, it was prestigious to marry many wives, the bigger the number of wives one had, the greater the honor. The exact number of wives Mulumba had is not known. But Matthew Kirevu, the eyewitness remembered the following three:
(a) Bwamunnyondo Taakulaba: She was a Muganda of the Ndiga (sheep/Oval) clan in the family of Muguluka. When Kalemba’s master known as Kaabunga succeeded his father Ddumba as county chief of Singo, he gave Bwamunnyondo, Kaabunga’s widowed step-mother, to Kalemba Mulumba to be his wife. When Mulumba embraced Christianity, he separated from Bwamunnyondo without fear of annoying his master Kaabunga, to whom Mulumba was the Assistant. But he gave out some property to support her for a considerable length of time.
Bwamunnyondo went back to his father Muguluka in Buddu County. She had been a young lady, but her beauty had faded away with age. Thus she named herself “ATAAKULABA,” which means “he or she who never saw you in your youth, cannot understand your former beauty.” Later Bwamunnyondo became a catholic and was baptized and given the name Berta at Villa Maria Parish in 1907. She died a very pious and devoted catholic in 1932.
(b) Tibajjukira: This was a Musoga of Mulumba’s tribe (a Musoga). When Kalemba Mulumba became a catholic, he separated from her according to the Christian law as he had done to Bwamunnyondo. He also surrendered some property for her upkeep. She named herself ”TIBAJJUKIRA,” which means “the Christians do not remember the good done to them.” She also later became a catholic, but Matthew Kirevu, the eyewitness and the informer did not remember her Christian name. Tibajjukira died during the Muslim/Christian wars of 1888.
(c) Kikuwambazza or Kikuwa: was a Muganda, with whom Kalemba Mulumba got properly married in the Catholic Church. Both were faithful to each other. Kikuwa soon embraced the catholic religion. By the time Mulumba died for his religion they had two children, a girl Julia “Baalekatebaawudde” (they left before identifying) who was 4 years and a boy who was about 2 years of age.
Kikuwa was a pious and devoted Catholic. When her husband was arrested for being a Christian, she voluntarily gave up herself to the executioners to be killed for her religion. But Mbugano, the leader of the Mityana executioners’ expedition refused, saying, “We do not kill women.” Instead one of the executioners wanted to take her for his wife. But she totally refused. After the martyrdom of her husband, Kikuwa lived a very pious, devoted, and self-sacrificial life.
Though Mulumba had had many wives from whom he separated remaining with only one, Kikuwa, still the priests hesitated in giving him the sacrament of Baptism. They had fear that Mulumba would bring back some of his former wives after receiving baptism. This was revealed to Mulumba before receiving that sacrament.
But Mulumba assured them, saying: ”Do not be afraid, I have made up my mind through my own free will, I am a mature man, I am determined to be a Catholic and abide by all the Catholic laws, never to turn back to my old ways be that as it may.”
On hearing that, the priests resolved to baptize him. Kalemba Mulumba was baptized on Pentecost Sunday 28th May 1882 and was given the name MATTHIAS.
When Mulumba sent away his other wives and retained only one for God’s Sake, he was brought to the Katikkiro’s (Prime Minister) tribunal on Wednesday 26th May 1886. Besides being a Christian, the Mulumba was furiously rebuked by the Katikkiro saying: “This was certainly an act of putting chiefs to shame by sending away all your wives and cooking your own food”. To which Mulumba retorted: “Have I been arrested and brought before you because I am thin or for the religion, I am practicing?”
Mulumba evangelizes with the utmost difficulty
When Mulumba embraced the Catholic faith, he set free all his servants and treated them in the best way possible, allowing them all full liberty for their well-being and prosperity. Out of humility Mulumba often carried his luggage on journeys instead of giving it to his servants to carry it, an act that was considered very humiliating.
When the Catholic Missionaries had fled Uganda to Tanganyika (Tanzania), from November 1882 to July 1885, Matthias Mulumba was allocated a big part of the country for evangelizing. He was in charge of evangelizing the whole of Buganda excluding the palace, Kampala, and the neighborhood.
His headquarters were at Mityana in Ssingo county, a distance of 42 miles or 64 kilometers from Kampala (the capital).
For evangelization purposes Mulumba opened up three other stations, namely:
1. NSEEGE: Near Bbowa Buzinde in Bulemeezi county, about 60 miles or 96 kilometers from Mityana.
2. KIYEGGA (MUKONO): This was 65 miles or 104 kilometers from Mityana.
3. MASAKA (Headquarters of Buddu county): 100 miles or 160 kilometers (short-cut) from Mityana, but 120 miles or 192 kilometers from Mityana via Kampala.
To reach out to each of these centers, Mulumba had to travel on foot all the way from Mityana. He was working very hard to spread and stabilize Catholicism in all these centers. Although he was extremely busy with evangelization work, he never neglected or abandoned his work as a chief. It was never heard that Mulumba ever failed to carry out his duties as a civil servant.
During the time of Lent, Mulumba used to fast the whole day, and even at supper, he used to take very little food. He worked vigorously and unceasingly almost the whole day. At other times, i.e. outside the Lenten period: on Wednesdays, Fridays, and Saturdays of every week, Mulumba did not eat meat, and very often on those days he would fast.
Mulumba dies the cruelest, most brutal, and most lingering death
When the storm of persecution broke, Matthias was at Mmengo with his chief, who had the task of rebuilding the royal palace, des¬troyed by fire in February.
Because Mulumba had sent away his other wives and retained only one for God’s Sake, he was brought to the Katikkiro’s (Prime Minister) tribunal on Wednesday 26th May 1886.
The Chancellor began by asking: ‘Are you the Mulumba?’ Matthias replied, ‘Yes I am.’
‘Why do you pray? What has induced a man of your standing to adopt the white men’s religion, at your age too?’
‘I follow that religion because I wish to.’
‘You have sent away all your wives, I am told. So you cook your own food, I suppose?’
‘Is it because I am thin, or because of my religion that I have been brought before you?’ asked Matthias.
Addressing Mulumba and Luke Baanabakintu, another Christian who had been arrested, the Chancellor said with a sneer, ‘So you are the people who are content to marry only one woman? And you are trying to persuade other people to agree to such a monstrosity!’
Besides being a Christian, the Mulumba was furiously rebuked by the Katikkiro saying: “This was certainly an act of putting chiefs to shame by sending away all your wives and cooking your own food”. To this Mulumba retorted: “Have I been arrested and brought before you because I am thin or for the religion, I am practicing?”
The Katikkiro became more furious and ordered the executioners, Tabawomuyombi and Lukowe in particular to take Mulumba to Namugongo to be killed in the cruelest manner.
On reaching Old Kampala, and for fear of his being pardoned by the King, Mulumba told the executioners: “Why do you take me all the way to Namugongo as if there is no death here, kill me here.” Then he said to Luke Baanabakintu, ‘Au revoir, my friend. We shall meet again in Heaven.’ ‘Yes, with God,’ answered Luke. The executioners were annoyed, took Mulumba a little distance into the jungle of elephant grass, and proceeded to butcher him on the Spot, employing every refinement of the cruelty of which they were capable.
They cut off his arms at the elbows, then cut off his legs at the ankles and knees. Finally, they cut off strips of flesh from his back and roasted them before him. The executioners used skillful means of stopping the bleeding so that he could stay longer in pain and poor Mulumba was left there a victim to be devoured by vouchers, wild animals, dogs, insects, etc. But he suffered quietly without any complaint; only one word came repeatedly to his lips, the invocation, ‘Katonda! Katonda! (My God!, My God!)’, and for three days and three nights he lay there motionless until he died.
Mulumba died the cruelest, most brutal, and lingering death, from Thursday 27th to Sunday 30th May 1886.
Left alone, in untold agony and without the consolation of anyone save his Lord and Master, Matthias suffered in silence both the excruciating thirst caused by the loss of so much blood, and the smarting pains of the wounds which had been inflicted over his whole body. Deprived of his limbs and attacked by swarms of flies and other biting insects, and exposed to the scorching heat, Mulumba lay suffering at his place of sacrifice for two full days, and on the second day, hearing human voices near, Matthias called out to them, and when they approached, asked them for a drop of water. But the men, instead of taking pity on the poor sufferer, ran away instead, fearing to come near such a spectacle anymore. And thus Matthias, deserted by all, passed away in agony and went to his reward.
Mulumba’s pains can better be imagined than described. And the heroism with which he bore his sufferings for two long days is beyond comprehension. God alone can know to the full extent of the agonies of his martyrs; we poor mortals can only feebly imagine and less accurately describe them.
Matthias Kalemba, the Mulumba, died, presumably on Sunday 30 May on Kampala Hill, now generally known as Old Kampala.
Chancellor regrets killing Mulumba
It was then that the Chancellor learned that Matthias Kalemba, whom he had so cruelly done to death a few days before, had been adopted and brought up by his own uncle, Magatto. On hearing this, he said, ‘If I had known that, I would not have put him to death, but I would have installed him in my household, and given him charge over all my goods, for I know that those who practice religion do not steal!’ Because of the newly discovered relationship, the Chancellor ordered his brother to establish Matthias’s widow on their own family estate.
What Catholic Missionaries had to say about Matthias Mulumba
Kalemba was baptized on the feast of Pentecost. After their baptism, he and Luke and the other two neophytes were confirmed by Pere Livinhac and then, at the High Mass sung by Pere Levesque, made their first Holy Communion. Profoundly impressed by at least one of those he had been privileged to admit into the Church, Pere Girault wrote:
Among those who have been baptized this morning, there is one in whom the action of Grace has been truly apparent, namely the Mulumba, a man of about thirty to forty years of age (actually nearer fifty), who throughout his whole life has had a fervent desire to know the true religion.
Before admitting Kalemba to baptism, the mission superior, Pere Livinhac, had asked him whether he was resolved to persevere and intimated that, if not, it would be better for him not to receive the sacrament. ‘Have no fear, Father,’ was the reply. ‘It is two years now since I made up my mind, and nothing can make me change it. I am a Catholic and I shall die a Catholic.’
Naturally of a haughty and violent disposition, Matthias Kalemba began to school himself in Christian humility and meekness, even in the smallest details of his daily life.
Within a week he had complied with the conditions and set his affairs in order. Pere Lourdel’s diary has the following entry for 7 June 1880:
“Yesterday, a young man among our catechumens, an overseer of the slaves of a great chief called Mukwenda, an ex-disciple of the Protestants and owner of a large number of women, sent them all away except one, and then came to ask us to baptize him.”
It was not, however, until two years later that Kalemba received the sacrament he so ardently desired. It was only then that, taking advantage of the permission given by Bishop Lavigerie to make some exceptions to the rule of the four years’ catechumenate, Pere Lourdel baptized four on 30 April 1882 and Pere Girault four more on 28 May. Both priests had the great privilege of baptizing two future martyrs, Pere Lourdel baptizing Joseph Mukasa and Andrew Kaggwa, and Pere Girault J: having in his group Matthias Kalemba and Luke Baanabakintu.
St. Gonzaga Gonza
St. Gonzaga Gonza was a Musoga from Bulamoogi county. His parents are not known, though it is said in various writings that he belonged to Lion (Mpologoma) clan. He was a page of the private courts under Muteesa I and a page of the audience hall under Mwanga II. Gonza was baptized on 16th November 1885 by Pere Lourdel. On his way to Namugongo for execution with fellow Christians, Gonza who had bleeding legs due to chains stuck into his flesh collapsed at Lubaawo, about 4 miles from Namugongo. At this spot, because he could not move anymore, Mukaajanga, the chief executioner speared him to death. It was on Thursday 27th May 1886. Gonza died at the age of about 24. He is the patron of the prisoners and afflicted.
The capture of Gonzaga Gonza and his arrival in Kabaka’s palace
Another foreign page, Gonzaga Gonza, was a Musoga, who, like his fellow-countryman Matthias Kalemba, had been seized and carried off as a slave by a raiding party of Baganda. His original name is unknown, the name Gonza having been given to him because he was captured by a Musoga chief of that name who belonged to the Lion Clan and lived in Bulamogi County.
Gonza was first in the service of one Tegusaaga who started as a palace firewood cutter and rose to the rank of corporal of the guard. By Tegusaaga, Gonza was presented to Kabaka Muteesa who employed him in the private section of the royal enclosure. Here he lived in quarters known as the House of Eunuchs, the occupants of which had the duty of delivering supplies, such as firewood and salt, to the houses occupied by the Kabaka’s women. Menya, another Musoga, was in charge of this section, assisted by Namulabira, and it was these two who first taught Gonza the Catholic prayers, which they had written on the back of a wooden tablet inscribed with Muslim prayers in Arabic.
The outbreak of plague which, no respecter of persons, carried off one of the Kabaka’s women in February 1881, drove the Court from Rubaga back to the old site at Nabulagala and thus put the three friends in close proximity to the new Catholic mission buildings at Kasubi.
Gonza was one of the pages of Muteesa recalled into the royal service by Kabaka Mwanga. He was then posted to the court of the great audience hall where he served under Charles Lwanga. He was not baptized until after the martyrdom of Joseph Mukasa, when he received the sacrament from Pere Lourdel and with it, the name Gonzaga, obviously suggested by his own name Gonza. He was about twenty-four years old at the time of his death on the road to Namugongo.
Gonzaga Gonza defects from Islam to Catholicism and lives to it
At the arrival of the Catholic Missionaries in Uganda in February 1879 Gonza (Ngonzabato: I love children) a page in King Muteesa’s palace was undergoing Islamic instructions.
It was Wednesday 1st September 1879 when King Muteesa I left Lubaga pa1ace because of the outbreak of plague and went to Kikandwa (Nabulagala).
This put the three friends in close proximity to the new Catholic mission buildings at Kasubi. Muteesa returned to Lubaga in June 1880. It was during that period that Gonza converted to Catholicism.
During the time of his conversion, he was living in one house with two of his friends, namely; Menya and Namulabira. Their group leader was Menya who converted to Catholicism first followed by Namulabira and finally by Gonza. They were all Basoga by the tribe.
At the beginning of 1881 a plague ravaged many parts of Buganda, the Kampala area, and the palace in particular; soon their leader, Menya, fell victim. On Wednesday 20th April 1881 Namulabira went to the Catholic Missionaries at Lubya for medicine to save Menya’s life. The missionaries themselves wanted to go to the patient but they were not allowed to enter the palace to visit the sick man and baptize him. Instead, Namulabira was given the drugs with instructions to treat the patient and baptize him. The next day, 21st April 1881, Menya passed away.
After the death of Menya, the two young men (Gonza and Namulabira) remained in the house. One month later Namulabira was falsely accused of having a love affair with Nankya, one of the king’s wives.
Nankya was also a member of the Bakojja. This was a group of women spying on the boys and men who were befriending the King’s wives. The Bakojja group used to search the houses at night so as to find out the culprits who were disturbing the king’s wives.
Another member of Bakojja and Nankya both fell in love with one of the pages and their encounter resulted in a bitter rivalry between the two women. In the meantime, Nankya’s rival tried to entice Namulabira into a love affair with her. But Namulabira totally refused. The woman got annoyed and falsely accused Namulabira of being in love with Nankya to the king.
The king got very annoyed and said “They are both despising me, they are guilty and they deserve a severe punishment.” He ordered the executioners to punish them for adultery. One leg of Namulabira was tied up to the adjacent leg of Nankya and the legs were burnt from foot to ankle after which the two were taken to prison. Nankya was taken to Mpinga’s prison (the gatekeeper). The burns of Nankya were more severe than those of Namulabira and consequently took longer to heal.
Gonza visited Mabuzi’s prison where they had imprisoned his friend Namulabira. He was very much disappointed at the prison’s condition, particularly the poor feeding. Namulabira was still undergoing his religious instructions and Gonza envisaged that the prison sentence would become a great hindrance to his instructions. He, therefore, resolved to try to solve both predicaments, i.e. Namulabira’s catechetical attendance and the poor feeding of the prisoners at Mabuzi’s prison almost concurrently. He, therefore, went to Mabuzi and begged him for; (a) permission to be imprisoned instead of Namulabira whenever the latter was due to go to the mission for religious instructions and (b) to prepare some food for the prisoners in whatever way he could.
Mabuzi willingly accepted the proposals but made sure that during the time Gonza stayed in prison in the place of Namulabira, he was severely punished in many various ways so as to make him give up his stand-in idea. On the contrary, despite all the tortures, abuses, etc, Gonza became more and more determined in his decision. He was happy to suffer for Christ and to enable Namulabira to attend to his religious instructions.
On returning from the Mission Namulabira would continue with his sentence as a prisoner while Gonza got released. Then Gonza would embark on the task of preparing food for the prisoners, a job that was looked upon as degrading and left only to women. But he did it satisfactorily and happily. He convinced some of his friends, like Louis Gaayiiya, of the importance of the job and they agreed to assist him. They took the food to the prisoners almost daily. The prisoners were happy and felt relieved of many of their problems.
In addition, Gonza and a few of his friends had to go around and fund-raise money for ransom to rescue their friend Namulabira from prison. They raised the ransom secretly and from a few Catholics. Thus the prisoner stayed rather long in prison while waiting for the required big amount of ransom including some other property.
The brutal slaughter of Gonzaga Gonza
After the condemnation, Christians had to be taken to Namugongo and be burnt to death, and on their way from Munyonyo, where the cruel judgment was passed, prisoners p first went to Mmengo.
The Musoga page, Gonzaga Gonza, formed part of the cortege which left Mmengo for Namugongo on the morning of Thursday, 27 May but, in spite of his effort to keep up with his companions, he soon fell behind the rest of the party. Like some of his fellow vic¬tims, he had spent the night in chains; but in his case, the chains around his legs had been fixed so tightly that, during the night, the flesh had swollen around them, and it was found impossible to unhook them in the morning. He had to set out on the ten-mile journey with the chains biting into his flesh, and could only drag himself along slowly, every step an agony. Before long, raw wounds encircled his legs and blood trickled to the ground. Although the fierce sun and the flies, attracted by the scent of blood, contributed to his sufferings, Gonza displayed almost unbelievable heroism in struggling along after his fellows for over seven miles. Finally, in sight of Lubaawo hamlet, at a spot where three roads met, he collapsed.
The custom of butchering one prisoner at each road junction was highly respected in Buganda culture and was probably not unknown to the martyr. It may well have been this knowledge, as much as sheer physical exhaustion that made the gallant youth fall to the ground at this spot and waits for the stroke that would release him from his agony. It came from the spears of the executioners or, according to one report, from that of Mukaajanga who had waited there for the laggard. One of the executioners later paid tribute to the courage displayed by this young man of twenty-four. ‘That boy,’ he said, ‘was very brave, he did not show any signs of fear.’
It seems that the martyr’s body was not hacked to pieces, like those of Ngondwe and Bazzekuketta. Sotieri Zibalaba of Gayaza claimed to have seen Gonza’s body lying on the road, two or three days after his death. The head had been severed from the trunk and decomposition had set in Kamyuka, on the way back from Namugongo a week after Gonzaga’s death, saw only the martyr’s hair on the road. Gonzaga Gonza died about noon on Thursday, 27 May.
“Next morning, they took us back to the capital. … On Lubaawo Hill, they pointed to locks of hair lying about on the road, saying, ‘That hair belonged to your friend Gonza.’ We saw nothing but his hair, for the vultures had already eaten all the flesh from the corpse. Gonza had let his hair grow because we were not allowed to have our hair cut while we were at Munyonyo,” narrated Kamyuka